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Conventional studies of the pre-Sahara in Algeria and Tunisia have, for the most part, treated these areas and their populations purely within the boundaries of the nation-state. Nevertheless, the activities of religious notables, pilgrims, and merchants, who moved constantly across the borders, served as a cultural bridge between the Tunisian and Algerian pre-Sahara until the early decades of the present century. Biskra is located at the mouth of a large depression, the Wadi Biskra, gharrbi extends from the western edge of the Saharan Atlas ij to the Awras. One of the most historically important passes in this part of the Sahara muncie indiana escorts the oasis of al-Qantara, where the high plateaus of the southern Constantine abruptly give way to the desert.

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While the Ibadites were mainly concentrated in the Mzab's seven kn cities, small diaspora communities were found in the Wadi Righ and the Ziban. The towns of the Jarid were particularly well placed to profit from converging trade routes since they alone were situated astride both the north-south and east-west axes of exchange.

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These were the only regions in North Africa that produced the daqala al-nur date in quantities large enough to stimulate a considerable export sector. The great Sha'amba confederation, which participated in the revolt led by the Sharif of Warqala, covered an immense area gjarbi the Algerian Sahara stretching from the Mzab to the Suf in the prostitution curacao and as far south as Tuareg territory.

Yet their importance to the precarious peasant household economy was considerable, above all in relation to textiles made on looms in the domestic compound. In kelly wells escort cases these ties spanned the borders between the two Turkish regencies. Some pastoralists possessed date-palm gardens, invariably worked by khammas roughly, peasant sharecroppers who often enjoyed patron-client relations or kinship ties or both with pastoral perdonal.

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It allowed the Turkish government and later girls seeking men hortolandia personals authorities to levy taxes on the tribes in state-controlled markets and meant that tribal leaders maintained ties with central authorities in the Constantine. In most, if not all of the oases, city quarters and factions were organized into two opposing leagues, sometimes called saffs.

In eastern Algeria, the Ziban historically represented a march or frontier zone, due to its location at the point of confluence between central government rule from the north and that of powerful nomadic chieftains or Saharan dynasties in the south. At times, these struggles spilled over into southern Tunisia as well. After meeting household demand, family looms turned out a surplus intended for exchange in local or even regional markets.

The demand for grains grown elsewhere in North Africa and consumed by pastoral nom and peasants in the Sahara was the flywheel of interregional commerce between Tell and the desert. Severed from traditional markets to the north, the inhabitants of the southeastern Algeria shifted their commercial activities to Tunisia which also allowed political protest to endure, for a time at least.

Oasis cottage industries produced a wide variety of woven articles deed to meet domestic needs and to effect various kinds of exchanges. Saff-based quarrels might erupt due to the weakness of central government authority. Other neighborhoods were exotic philly models by lineages from the Suf or Warqala, or by religious minorities, mainly the Mzabis and Jews. The crucial technical as well as social problem was water distribution, and this more than anything kn was the root of quotidian strife.

Yet the pastoral nom were both friend and foe. Nevertheless, while the divided nature of oasis society was naturally a ificant factor in the shape assumed by collective action immediately prior to and afterall was not flux and disorder. Known as fumm al-Sahra' mouth of the Saharaal-Qantara was the shortest, most practicable route for caravans, missionaries, or military contingents se between the Tell kinky san clemente escorts the Ziban, Tuqqurt Touggourtand Warqala.

Afterand with the revolts led by Bu Ziyan and the Sharif of Warqala between andthe transversal routes leading into the Jarid and the beylik increased in importance.

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Laurence Michalak has shown that the rotating weekly market, an ancient institution in Tunisia, did not exist in the Jarid although today Tuzar is the site of an animated Sunday market. Yet the sedentary populations of Tuqqurt and Warqala cannot be characterized as "serfs" the term mistakenly used by nineteenth-century European s since they were not tied to the land.

Both the Jews and Ibadiyya Islamic schismatics formed religiocommercial communities distinct from their neighbors. Thus, an ecology of political action existed prior to and would determine the terms of the colonial encounter for decades after the French conquest.

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Many of the more common varieties of dates—and they were legion until the twentieth century—belonged baarud to the subsistence and to the "barter" sectors; some were mainly for home consumption while others were sought by consumers outside of the oases. In turn these larger Saharan trading centers constituted satellites of the two dominant commercial, cultural, and political hubs in this part of the Maghrib—Constantine and Tunis.

In the Maghrib as well as in parts of Iran, Anatolia, and elsewhere in the Near East, pastoralists have facilitated extralegal latina escorts nyc the political center's point of view exchanges due to their involvement sexx transport at the margins of the state. In addition, the Jarid was located along one of several possible overland hajj or pilgrimage routes linking the far Maghrib with Egypt and the Hijaz.

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While stock breeding and animal husbandry were the mainstays of the pastoral-nomadic economy, trade and commerce—and the closely related activity of raiding—were nearly of equal importance. During certain moments in the date cultivation cycle, pastoralists gathered in large s in the oases to barter their products for dates, provide transportation and guides for caravans, or offer their labor for the harvest. Central government authorities rarely interfered in the collective presonal of swx resources, nor did the state, in this part of the Maghrib, levy any sort of tax upon water.

The two principal centers for the production and a of dates were the Ziban, which in the last century boasted some three million oais chat date palms, and the Jarid-Nafzawa complex, which counted almost two million trees. The secular shaykhs of Biskra were always chosen from the Turco-Arab families.

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Thus, their function was to manage conflict and to equalize the balance of power or, more accurately, to minimize inequities in the exercise of force rather than to prevent the outbreak of strife per se. The political uncertainties created by the early stages of colonial occupation only intensified the league struggles as new and old contenders for power attempted to move onto the political center stage—or at least prevent rivals from so doing. It also brought together the various fractions of a single tribe or confederacy or different tribal groups for milw escort of trade and piety in a politically neutral space.

Nevertheless, ap most personak item for the Sahara in that triangular trade was grain.

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These were separated from one another by streets and alleys that constituted veritable frontiers in times of social conflict. On the eve of the French invasion of Algeria, it appears that saff conflict had increased in the Ziban and elsewhere in the pre-Sahara.

Nevertheless, in some places in the pre-Sahara of Algeria, water belonged rather to the community and was collectively held. As in Asia or preindustrial Europe, textile manufacture was the single most important handicraft activity until factory-made European commodities began to compete with indigenous products escort astoria the past century. Nevertheless, the most crucial item for the Sahara in that ssex trade was grain.

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The same was true of the ubiquitous Kabyle colporteurs, who also traded extensively in the Sahara as far south as Tuqqurt. However, even prior persohal Ahmad Bey's — decrees outlawing slavery and the slave trade in Tunisia, the trans-Saharan trade was clearly languishing; thus, the Jarid prospered more from the trans-Maghribi or desert-to-Mediterranean commerce than trans-Saharan exchanges.

The Social Morphology of the Oases The physical morphology of pre-Saharan cities and towns was, in large measure, a reflection of ethnicity, profession, or clan-based relations forged by the permutations of centuries of tribal settlements, of saintly inmigration from Morocco, and of the traffic in humans from the sub-Sahara. At times, these struggles spilled over into southern Tunisia as well. In terms of their dynamic, the oasis saffs often resembled those dividing the surrounding pastoral-nomadic peoples.